Hi Professor Flanagan,
Two reasons that can lead to renal failure and why:
High blood pressure and diabetes are the two most common causes of kidney failure. They can also become damaged from physical injury, diseases, or other disorders.
The reason for diabetes causing renal failure is that “high blood glucose, also called blood sugar, can damage the blood vessels in your kidneys,” (NKD). When the blood vessels are damaged, they don’t work as well. Many people with diabetes also develop high blood pressure, which can also damage your kidneys. As for why high blood pressure can cause renal failure, “high blood pressure can constrict and narrow the blood vessels, which eventually damages and weakens them throughout the body, including in the kidneys. The narrowing reduces blood flow. If your kidneys’ blood vessels are damaged, they may no longer work properly,” (NIH 2020).
National Kidney Foundation. Kidney Failure. https://www.kidney.org/atoz/content/KidneyFailure#:~:text=High%20blood%20pressure%20and%20diabetes,%2C%20diseases%2C%20or%20other%20disordersLinks to an external site..
NIH. (2020 March). High Blood Pressure & Kidney Disease. NIH National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/kidney-disease/high-blood-pressure#:~:text=High%20blood%20pressure%20can%20constrict,may%20no%20longer%20work%20properlyLinks to an external site..