Module 5

Respond to at least one peer by supporting agreement or polite disagreement and adding additional information and ideas to further the discussion.( write me up a paragraph responding to this post below ).

Discuss how threatening the farmers perceive skin cancer to be (i.e., what are their views on the severity/seriousness of skin cancer, their own vulnerability to it, and the rewards associated with their behavior)?

Most farmers do not consider themselves susceptible to the complications arising from solar radiation and skin cancer. Most of them can do their daily farming practices effectively without covering their head. Besides, some farmers agree that using sunscreen has no impact on skin cancer penetration and relatives mock them when they use sunscreen (Jafar et al., 2013). Only a small proportion of farmers believe that they have no problem with using protective cloths. The rewards for failure to put show preventative and protected behavior is associated with average level rewards. The majority of the farmers argued that avoiding using clothing and protective covering enabled them to look good, convenient, and more focused on completing their tasks. Thus, perceived susceptibility should be made a priority while developing education intervention for farmers.      

Now, use the farmers’ coping appraisal to explain their skin cancer protective behaviors.

The study’s findings reveal a negative correlation between sun-protective behaviors and costs. Farmers that perceive higher response costs to a sun-protective behavior may be less likely to exhibit that behavior. The coping appraisal of the farmers will be to use cloths instead of sunscreen. However, the clothes leave the farmers susceptible to skin cancer because they do not block out rays. 67% of the farmers agreed that using sunscreen does not protect them against skin cancer (Babazadeh et al., 2016). Also, their relatives made fun of them concerning the cost of the sunscreens. Income status and educational levels play a significant role in the coping appraisal of the farmers. Farmers with better income statues used sunscreens than those with low incomes. Besides, farmers with elementary education levels used less hat than those with a better education.     

Based on the PMT constructs of threat and coping appraisal, analyze what suggestions the authors made regarding the focus of the interventions to reduce skin cancer.

The authors suggest that an educational program is an effective tool for increasing perceived susceptibility among rural farmers. After the introduction of educational interventional to the rural farmers, they became more aware that they are vulnerable to skin cancer (Hayden, 2019). Perceived susceptibility is a psychosocial predictor that impacts conducting skin cancer preventive behaviors. It is essential to educate farmers concerning their vulnerability to skin cancer. The implementation of theory-based intervention can enhance the perceived susceptibility of the farmers concerning skin behaviors that prevent skin cancer. Besides, enhancing the economic situation reduces the perceived barrier among farmers to practice economy-based preventive behaviors. These can motivate rural farmers to perform cancer protective behaviors after realizing that their exposure to sunlight is a health hazard.              

Assess what ways, if any, were your threat and/or coping appraisal responses the same as those of the farmers? Do you think the suggested intervention foci would be effective?

My threat and coping appraisal response was the same as those of farmers when I had little knowledge concerning sun and skin cancer. I never enjoyed basking in the sun for a long time to get a tan. However, I do enjoy outdoor activities like cross country, skiing, biking, and running. I thought that skin cancer was something that occurs after many years of excessive tanning. I was very ignorant concerning the dangers of UV radiation because I frequently went outdoors without sunscreen. In 2013, my cousin was diagnosed with malignant melanoma on her left thigh. I learned that I did not have enough knowledge concerning the dangers of sun and skin cancer. I spent several months researching from books and the internet on the dangers of sun rays and established that exposure to the sun without protective cloths can cause skin cancer. Every time I go for my outdoor activities, I always have sun-protective clothing. I have more than 20 baseball caps that I use for biking. With educational intervention, I have enhanced my perceived threat and susceptibility over the years. Besides, my perceived benefits of using sun-protective clothes have increased.  Based on my knowledge of sun and skin cancer, I think that the intervention foci that Hayden (2019) suggests will be more effective. 


Babazadeh, T., Kamran, A., Dargahi, A., Moradi, F., Shariat, F., & Moghaddam, H. R. (2016). Skin cancer preventive behaviors among rural farmers: An intervention based on protection motivation theory. Medical journal of the Islamic Republic of Iran30, 444.

Hayden, J. (2019). Introduction to health behavior theory (3rd ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Jafar, T., Mohtasham, G., & Reza M, R. (2013). Threat appraisal for skin cancer among rural farmers in Ilam, Iran. Iranian Journal of Dermatology16(4), 121-127.

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