For each of the following examples, determine whether this is an embedded system, explaining why or why not.
Are programs that understand physics and/or hardware embedded? For example, one that uses finite-element methods to predict fluid flow over airplane wings?
Is the internal microprocessor controlling a disk drive an example of an embedded system?
Is an I/O drivers control hardware, so does the presence of an I/O driver imply that the computer executing the driver is embedded?
Is a PDA (Personal Digital Assistant) an embedded system?
Is the microprocessor controlling a cell phone an embedded system?
Is the computer controlling a pacemaker in a person’s chest an embedded computer?
List and briefly define the possible states that define an instruction execution.
List and briefly define two approaches to dealing with multiple interrupts.
Consider two microprocessors having 8- and 16-bit-wide external data buses, respectively. The two processors are identical otherwise and their bus cycles take just as long.
(a) Suppose all instructions and operands are two bytes long. By what factor do the maximum data transfer rates differ?
(b) Repeat assuming that half of the operands and instructions are one byte long.